what is razakars?

Razakar (Bengali: রাজাকার) was the name given to a paramilitary force organized by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

The word razakar, originating from Persian, literally means "volunteer". The Razakar force was composed of mostly pro-Pakistani Bengalis and Urdu-speaking migrants living in erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Initially, the force was under the command of local pro-Pakistani committees, but through the East Pakistan Razakar Ordinance (promulgated by General Tikka Khan on 1 June 1971) and a Ministry of Defence ordinance (promulgated 7 September 1971), Razakars were recognized as members of the Pakistan Army. Razakars were allegedly associated with many of the atrocities committed by the Pakistan Army during the 9-month war (see 1971 Bangladesh atrocities).

These Pakistani offsprings were organized into Brigades of around 3-4000 volunteers , mainly armed with Light Infantry weapons provided by the Pakistani Army. Each Razakar Brigade was attached as an auxiliary to two Pakistani Regular Army Brigades, and their main function was to arrest and detain nationalist Bengali suspects. Usually such suspects were often tortured to death in custody. The Razakars were trained in the conventional army fashion by the Pakistan Army.

Following the liberation of East Pakistan as the independent country of Bangladesh, most of the leading Razakars, allegedly including Ghulam Azam, fled to Pakistan (previously West Pakistan). Ghulam Azam maintains that he went to Pakistan to participate in the Annual General Meeting of his organization, the Jamaat-e-Islami, but he was forced to remain overseas until General Ziaur Rahman allowed him to return to Bangladesh. Many of the lower ranking Razakars who remained in Bangladesh were killed in the course of reprisals immediately after the end of fighting while as many as 36,000 were imprisoned. Of the latter many were later freed mainly because of pressure from US and China who backed Pakistan in the war, and because Pakistan was holding 200,000 Bengali speaking military and civilian personnel who were stranded in West Pakistan during the war.

After the restoration of democracy in 1992, an unofficial and self-proclaimed “People's Court” (Bengali: গণআদালত Gônoadalot) “sentenced” Ghulam Azam and his ten accomplices to death for war crimes and crimes against humanity. However, as the Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party was already a part of the ruling alliance in Bangladesh, the “verdict” was ignored. Moreover, the then Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) government re-granted Bangladeshi nationality to Ghulam Azam, as it had been taken from him after the war. Subdued during the rule of Awami League from 1996-2001, Jamaat-e-Islami returned in full force after the next election in October 2001 in which a four party alliance led by BNP won a landslide victory. The new leader of Jamaat after Ghulam Azam’s retirement, Motiur Rahman Nizami, a Razakar and among the ten people tried by the Gônoadalot, became an influential minister in the government.

The word রাজাকার razakar today carries the meaning "traitor" in common Bangladeshi Bengali parlance, similar to the usage of the word Quisling after the Second World War.

reference : wikpedia

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Sunday, November 7, 2010

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

কিছু মাদ্রাসায় অস্ত্র চালনা প্রশিক্ষণ দেয়া হয়।




অনুষ্ঠানের মুক্ত আলোচনায় ্যাবের উইং কমান্ডার জাকির হোসেন বলেনজঙ্গিবাদ পুরোপুরি নিয়ন্ত্রণে আছে। তবে হিযবুত তাহ্রীর তাঁদের শঙ্কিত করে তুলেছে।
জাতীয় নিরাপত্তা গোয়েন্দা সংস্থার (এনএসআইপরিচালক কর্নেল টি এম জোবায়ের বলেনহিযবুত তাহ্রীরের মতো সংগঠনগুলোতে দেশের অভিজাত পরিবারের শিক্ষিত  আধুনিক সন্তানেরা যোগ দিচ্ছেন। তাঁরা রাস্তায় নামছেনজেল খাটছেন। হিযবুত তাহ্রীরের সদস্য সংখ্যা দিনে দিনে বাড়ছে।

গবেষণা প্রতিবেদনটি উপস্থাপন করেন বিইআইর পরিচালক (গবেষণাফায়েজ সোবহান। এতে বলা হয়জরিপে নির্ধারিত প্রশ্নপত্রের উত্তরদাতাদের ৮১ দশমিক  শতাংশ মানুষ মনে করেনসন্ত্রাসবাদ তাঁদের নিরাপত্তার জন্য ঝুঁকি। ২২ দশমিক  শতাংশ মনে করেনবাংলাদেশ আরও অনিরাপদ হচ্ছে। আর সন্ত্রাসবাদের কারণ হিসেবে ৬৮ শতাংশ উত্তরদাতা মনে করেনইসলামের ভুল ব্যাখ্যার কারণে  রকম হচ্ছে।
প্রতিবেদনে বলা হয়গবেষণায় অংশ নেওয়া শতকরা ৮৭ ভাগ উত্তরদাতা মনে করেনদেশের শিক্ষাব্যবস্থা খুবই নাজুক এবং তা পর্যাপ্ত নীতি-নৈতিকতার জ্ঞান দিচ্ছে না। মাদ্রাসাকে সন্ত্রাসবাদের জন্মক্ষেত্র হিসেবে অনেকে দায়ী করেনবিশেষ করে কওমি মাদ্রাসা। অনেকগুলো কওমি মাদ্রাসা গণতন্ত্রের ধারণাগুলোর বিরুদ্ধমতের নেতৃত্ব দিচ্ছে এবং চরমপন্থায় যোগ দেওয়ার প্রাথমিক বাহন হিসেবে কাজ করছে। ওই মাদ্রাসাগুলোতে শুধু কোরআনের শিক্ষা দেওয়া হয়কোনো আধুনিক বা অসাম্প্রদায়িক শিক্ষা দেওয়া হয় না। অনেক ক্ষেত্রেই এসব মাদ্রাসাশিক্ষিত ব্যক্তিরা মনে করেনশুদ্ধ ইসলাম প্রতিষ্ঠার জন্যই তাঁরা পৃথিবীতে এসেছেন।
গবেষণায় দেশে সাতটি জঙ্গি সংগঠনের কর্মকাণ্ডের কথা উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে। এগুলো হলোহিযবুত তাহ্রীরজামাআতুল মুজাহিদীন বাংলাদেশ (জেএমবি), জাগ্রত মুসলিম জনতা বাংলাদেশ (জেএমজেবি), হরকাতুল জিহাদলস্কর--তাইয়েবাজইশে মুহাম্মদ এবং ইসলাম  মুসলিম।